Understanding of Syphilis

Syphilis or Lion King is an infection caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is one of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Generally, this infection spreads through sexual contact with an infected person. In addition through intimate relationships, syphilis-causing bacteria can also spread through exposure to body fluids sufferers, for example through the blood.

In general, direct contact occurs through sexual contact. This sexual relationship can take the form of vaginal, anal, or oral sex. In addition, sharing a needle can also transmit the infection of this disease, both in injecting drug users and the art enthusiasts body, such as tattoos and ear piercing.

Transmission of syphilis can also occur from a pregnant woman to her baby. This condition is known as congenital syphilis. Infant mortality in the womb may occur due to this infection.

Syphilis-causing bacteria can not last long beyond the human body, and the disease can not be transmitted through the following ways:

  • Wearing the same toilet with syphilis.
  • Sharing the same cutlery.
  • Wearing the same outfit.
  • Sharing a pool or similar bathroom.

The first symptoms of syphilis appear about three weeks after the bacteria enter the body. Syphilis infection is divided into four main stages, among others:

Primary Syphilis

People with syphilis develop symptoms that begin with lesions or sores on the genitals or inside and around the mouth. The wounds that occur are shaped like insect bites but not painful. At this stage, if an infected person has sex with another person, transmission is very easy. This wound lasts for 1-2 months. Eventually, this lesion will heal without leaving a mark.

Secondary Syphilis

Patients with secondary syphilis will experience a red rash the size of a small coin and usually this rash appears on the palms and soles of the feet. Other symptoms that may arise are fever, decreased appetite, sore throat and genital warts. This phase can last for one to three months.

Latent Syphilis

After the secondary syphilis phase, syphilis seems to disappear and cause no symptoms at all. This latent period can last about two years before then proceed to the most dangerous period in syphilis infection that is tertiary syphilis.

Tertiary Syphilis

If the infection is not treated, syphilis will progress to the final stage, which is tertiary syphilis. At this stage, the infection can have a serious effect on the body. Some of the consequences of infection at this stage are paralysis, blindness, dementia, hearing problems, impotence, and even death if left untreated.

Syphilis is most easily transmitted in the primary and secondary syphilis phases. If you feel infected with syphilis, consult a physician or clinic for a specialist venous disease to confirm the diagnosis of syphilis. The sooner syphilis is treated, the less likely it is that syphilis develops into a serious disease.

Treatment of Syphilis

Treatment of syphilis is very easy to do. The usual treatment is to use antibiotics in the form of penicillin injections. If left untreated, syphilis can be a dangerous disease and can lead to death.

Patients with syphilis who are in the treatment period should avoid sexual contact until infection is confirmed to have recovered completely.

Understanding Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are swelling and dilation of veins that usually occur in the legs due to accumulation of blood. People who suffer from this disease, their veins can also be seen protruding out in blue or purple. Sometimes the shape resembles a knot or a twisted cord.

In addition, other symptoms that may accompany varicose veins are swelling of the lower leg (including the ankle), the legs are heavy and uncomfortable, discoloration of the lower leg skin or dry-looking skin, and leg muscle cramps.

Varicose veins can occur in all veins of the body, but this condition most often occurs in the legs (especially the calf) due to the great pressure when we stand or walk.

Cases of varicose veins are mostly experienced by women than men. In addition to female sex, other factors that can increase a person affected by varicose veins are obesity, pregnancy, and old age.

The cause of blood clots in varicose veins

Blood deposits in the veins result from weakening or damaging the venous valve. The veins function to drain blood from the whole body to the heart. Inside the veins, there is a valve that serves as a one-way door so that the blood that has passed through it can not come back again. Weakness or destruction of the venous valve causes a backflow of blood and blood buildup in the veins. This buildup then causes the vessels to widen.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

The diagnosis of varicose disease is done by first collecting information about the symptoms, medical history, and risk factors in the patient. After that the doctor will perform a physical examination by observing the parts that have varicose veins. Special tests are rarely recommended unless the doctor suspects deep vein problems or other complications. An example of a possible test might be the US Duplex Doppler.

Treatment of Varicose veins

The condition of varicose veins that are still relatively mild can still be handled alone at home. The goal is to relieve symptoms, prevent worsened varicose veins, and avoid complications of wounds or bleeding.

One example of handling that we can do is to wear antivarises stockings or also called compression bundles. In addition, avoid standing for too long and take a few moments to rest your feet in the position of the body rested with a buffer (the position of the foot higher than the body). Do not forget to always maintain ideal body weight and exercise routine.

If the discomfort or pain due to varicose veins still feels even if you have done the handling at home, or even cause complications, then you should see a doctor. Treatment methods that may be suggested by the doctor are surgical removal of veins that have varicose veins and venous closure surgery by using a special material shaped foam (sclerotherapy) or by using heat (endothermal ablation).

Understanding Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a gradual degeneration of nerve cells in the central brain that regulates body movement. Symptoms that many people know of this disease is the occurrence of tremors or tremors. While the initial symptoms are usually difficult to recognize.

Two examples of early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:

  • Feel weak or feel more stiff on some body.
  • Shaking fine on one hand while resting.

After the initial symptoms, then there will be other symptoms that may be experienced by patients, such as:

  • Tremor is getting worse and spreading.
  • Muscles feel stiff and inflexible.
  • The movement is slow.
  • Reduced balance and body coordination.

Patients with Parkinson’s disease may also experience other physical symptoms (eg constipation, sleeplessness or insomnia, loss of sense of smell or anosmia, and memory problems) and psychological symptoms (eg anxiety and depression).

Patients with Parkinson’s disease

Until now, it is estimated there are more than 10 million people in the world who suffer from Parkinson’s disease. Everyone can get this disease, but most are among the elderly and more likely to happen to men.

Usually symptoms of Parkinson’s disease begin to feel when the sufferer entering the age of 50 years. But there are about 5 percent of people who experience symptoms at the age of 40 years.

Causes of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease affects a small part of the midbrain called susbstantia nigra. The function of substantia nigra is to send messages to the various nerves in the spine that function to control the muscles in the body. Messages will be sent from brain cells to nerves and muscles by utilizing chemical compounds called neurotransmitters. One of the major neurotransmitters produced by brain cells in substantia nigra is dopamine.

The movement setting of the body is strongly influenced by dopamine. When the amount of dopamine decreases will cause brain activity will be disrupted. This is what causes the emergence of signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

The cause of decreased dopamine is still unknown. But there are several factors that can trigger this, such as heredity and environmental factors.
Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

To date, Parkinson’s disease does not yet have a cure. Treatment and handling are available only to relieve the symptoms experienced. Treatment is done to maintain the quality of life of the patient in order to move as normal as possible.

The available treatment steps are physiotherapy, medication, and surgery if necessary. Parkinson’s disease in the early stages, the symptoms tend to be mild and do not need special treatment. But in order to know the progress of the condition, a routine check will be done.

Now the development of Parkinson’s disease treatment is quite advanced. Patients with this condition can live as much as possible by undergoing advances in existing treatment and treatment techniques.

Along with the development of this disease, Parkinson’s patients will need the help of others in performing daily routine. There are some that are greatly aided by the treatment but there are also some who feel the limited effects of treatment.

Treatment of Skin Infection

Some types of skin infections, especially those caused by viruses, can usually be treated at home without the need for a doctor. Unlike viruses, bacterial skin infections usually have to be treated with antibiotics. If still relatively mild, antibiotics in the form of cream or ointment you can apply directly to the infected skin. However, if the severity of the infection is high enough, the doctor will usually prescribe a drinking antibiotic or if necessary give you an antibiotic injection. Similarly with skin infections by the fungus, your doctor can give you a topical anti-fungal, drinking, or inject-able drug.

To help reduce inflammation and itching, you can compress infected skin with cold water or take an over-the-counter antihistamine drug in a pharmacy.
Treatment of Smallpox
Because smallpox is caused by viruses, treatment by doctors is generally not necessary except in patients with certain conditions, such as newborns, pregnant women, and patients with low immune systems. For all three cases, doctors will usually prescribe acyclovir.

Do not scratch smallpox even though itchy because it can leave a scar after heal or dry. If smallpox causes fever symptoms, the consumption of over-the-counter painkillers, such as ibuprofen and paracetamol. Although sold freely, it is important to read and adhere to the usage instructions contained on the packaging to avoid unwanted side effects.
Herpes Zoster Treatment
Antiviral drugs such as aciclovir, famciclovir, and valaciclovir may be prescribed to speed healing, reduce severity, and prevent complications. In addition, you can also take painkillers, such as paracetamol, to relieve symptoms of pain.

During the healing period of herpes zoster, you are advised to keep the rash dry and clean. In addition, it is prohibited to close the rash with a bandage because it can slow the healing period.
Treatment of Ulcers, Impetigo, Cellulitis, and Leprosy
Because these five conditions occur due to bacterial infection, the main treatment is to use antibiotics. In addition, painkillers, such as paracetamol, can be used to relieve pain.

For severe cases of ulcers, your doctor may give you a penicillin, clarithromycin, or antibiotic. In addition, treatment with small surgery to remove the pus inside the boils can be done if needed.

For the case of impetigo, topical antibiotics are usually given if the severity of the disease is still relatively mild. If it is severe enough, then the doctor will usually give antibiotics to drink.

For the case of cellulitis, doctors usually prescribe antibiotics of the penicillin group. But if you are allergic to penicillin, then the doctor can replace it with clarithromycin or erythromycin. If the severity of your cellulitis is severe enough, for example to experience symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and fever, it is likely to require hospitalization. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and fever may be a sign that cellulitis infections have spread to the bloodstream.

In cases of leprosy, antibiotics diaminodifenyl sulphon, rifampicin, and clofazimine are usually used as initial therapy, usually for a period of over half a year. To prevent nerve damage or other damage, doctors also usually prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment of Ringworm, Candidiasis, Athlete Foot Disease, Sporotrikokis, and Nail Fungus
Because these five conditions are skin infections caused by fungi, the main treatment is to use antifungal drugs. Anti-fungal drugs are available in tablet form (eg griseofulvin and terbinafine), creams, sprays, or shampoo (eg ketoconazole and selenium sulphide).

It is important to evaluate the advice of a physician or the instructions contained in the drug product packaging regarding the use and dosage procedures for the treatment of fungal infections can be safer and more effective.

Symptoms of Epilepsy


Recurrent seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. The characteristics of the seizures will vary and depend on the part of the brain that was first interrupted and how far the disorder occurred. Based on the disorder of the brain, the seizure type of epilepsy is divided into two, namely partial and general.

Partial seizures

In partial or focal seizures, the brain is only partially disturbed. These partial seizures are subdivided into two categories: simple partial seizures (without loss of consciousness) and complex partial seizures.

Simple partial seizures are characterized by no loss of awareness of the patient when seizures occur. Symptoms can be a jolting limb, or a tingling sensation, dizziness, and flashes of light.

The part of the body that has a seizure depends on which part of the brain is impaired. For example, if epilepsy interferes with the function of the brain that regulates the movement of the hands or feet, then the two members of the body will experience seizures. In addition, partial seizures can also make the patient change emotionally, such as feeling excited or scared suddenly.

Occasionally, focal seizures affect the patient’s consciousness so that he or she looks confused or semi-conscious for a while. This is called a complex partial seizure. Other complex partial seizures are empty sight, swallowing, chewing, or rubbing the hands.

General Spasms

In general or generalized seizures, symptoms occur throughout the body and are caused by disorders that affect the entire brain. The following are symptoms that can occur when a person is stricken with a generalized seizure:

  • Eyes that open when seizures.
  • Tonic seizures. The body becomes stiff for a few seconds. This can be followed by rhythmic movements on the arms and legs or not at all. The muscles in the body especially the arms, legs, and back twitch.
  • Atypical spasm. The muscles of the body suddenly become relaxed so that the patient falls uncontrollably.
  • Clonic seizures. A rhythmic jerking movement that usually attacks the muscles of the neck, face and arms.
  • People with epilepsy sometimes make voices or shout when experiencing convulsions.
  • Bedwetting.
  • Difficulty breathing for a while so the body looks pale or even blue.
  • In some cases, complete seizures make the patient completely unconscious.
  • Once conscious, the patient looks confused for several minutes or hours.

There is a type of epilepsy commonly experienced by children, known by the name of absence epilepsy or petit mal. Although this condition is not dangerous, but the concentration and academic achievement of children can be disrupted. The characteristics of this epilepsy are loss of consciousness for a few seconds, winking or gesturing lips, and blank look. Children who experience this seizure will not realize or remember what happened when they were seizures.

Understanding of Epilepsy


Epilepsy or epilepsy is a condition that can cause a person to experience seizures repeatedly. Damage or changes in the brain are known to be responsible for a small proportion of epilepsy cases. In most cases, however, the cause remains unknown.

In the human brain there are neurons or nerve cells that are part of the nervous system. Each nerve cell communicates with each other using electrical impulses. In the case of epilepsy, seizures occur when the electrical impulses are over-produced resulting in uncontrolled behavior or body movements.

Seizures are a major symptom of epilepsy, but not necessarily people with epilepsy seizures. In the medical world, a person is suspected of having epilepsy after having more than one seizure. The severity of seizures in each epilepsy sufferer varies. Something lasts only a few seconds and some are up to a few minutes. There are only experienced seizures in some parts of the body and there is also a total seizure to cause loss of consciousness.

According to WHO data, approximately 50 million people in the world live with epilepsy. This figure will increase by about 2.4 million every year. Epilepsy cases are higher in developing countries. In developed countries, epilepsy cases increase by about 30-50 cases per 100,000 population. Whereas in a country with low and medium income per capita cases can increase up to two-fold.

In Indonesia alone obtained data on epilepsy cases of at least 700,000-1.4 million. This number will increase by approximately 70ribu each year. Among these, there are approximately 40-50 percent of cases of epilepsy that occur in children.

Causes of epilepsy

Epilepsy can begin to suffer at any age, although generally this condition occurs since childhood. Based on the cause, epilepsy is divided into two, namely idiopathic and symptomatic.

Epidepsy idiopathic (also referred to as primary epilepsy) is a type of epilepsy whose cause is unknown. Some experts suspect that this condition is caused by genetic factors (heredity). While symptomatic epilepsy (also called secondary epilepsy) is a type of epilepsy whose cause can be known. A number of factors, such as severe head injury, brain tumors, and stroke are thought to cause secondary epilepsy.

Treatment as well as epilepsy complications

Until now there is no drug or method that can cure this condition completely. Even so, antiepileptic drugs or OAE can prevent seizures so that patients can perform daily activities normally with ease and safe.

In addition to drugs, treatment of epilepsy also needs to be supported with a healthy lifestyle, such as regular exercise, not consuming excessive alcoholic beverages, as well as special diets.

The reason why seizures in epilepsy patients need to be handled appropriately is to avoid the occurrence of situations that can endanger the lives of sufferers. Examples are falling, drowning, or having an accident while driving due to seizures.

Epilepsy can also cause sudden death and experience epileptic status in rare cases. The status of epilepticus is a condition when epilepsy suffer seizures for more than 5 minutes or a series of short seizures. When a series of short seizures occur, epileptic status sufferers will usually be in a state that is not fully conscious. The status of epilepticus can cause damage to the brain permanently, even death.

Understanding of Snoring

Snoring is the vibration generated by the airflow passing through the partially blocked airways. The sound generated from this vibration can be loud or violent (hoarse) disturbing.

Snoring is commonly experienced by adults and is an early symptom of sleep apnea disease due to obstruction or other serious health disorders. In addition to the reduced sleep time, snoring becomes one of the causes of daytime drowsiness, decreased focus, and reduced libido.

The Cause of Snoring

A large snoring sound is generated by obstructed air passing through the respiratory tract structures during sleep. But in general, snoring occurs when soft tissue in the palate (soft palate), child’s pile (uvula), and throat to relax when we enter deeper sleep (sleep) after sleep for about 90 minutes. Other parts that also experience vibration are the nasal passages, tongue base, and tonsils. Muscles and tissues that are in this relaxed condition that causes disturbed or obstructed flow of air passing so that there is vibration or snoring.

The more narrow the air flow, the more difficult it is also the air passes through the respiratory tract. This condition causes an increase in the strength of the airflow resulting in a stronger vibration or snoring sound as well. There are several factors that affect the disruption of air flow causes snoring, namely:

Lack of sleep

  • The supine sleeping position causes the throat to narrow and the tongue descends downward, blocking airflow.
  • Anatomy of the mouth, for example, has a ceiling that is too low, the position of the jaw is wrong due to muscle tension, and a throat that closes when sleeping.
  • Nasal disruption, eg severe blockage or perforated nostril splints
  • Partially blocked airways, eg due to colds or allergies that cause tonsils to enlarge.
  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages or drugs that make the throat muscles relax
  • Overweight (obesity) which causes the amount of fatty tissue around the throat.
  • Apnea sleeping obstruction, ie when the existing tissue in the throat blocking some or all of the air flow thus interfere with breathing.
  • Men are more likely to experience snoring than women.
  • Have a family member who snores or suffers from sleep apnea obstruction.

Snoring Treatment

Lifestyle changes are the first action that will be recommended to handle snoring, for example by losing weight to normal limits, and maintaining adequate sleep time. Snoring patients should also avoid the consumption of alcoholic drinks, especially before bedtime, and provide treatment for nasal congestion and advise patients not to sleep on their backs.

For snoring caused by sleep apnea obstruction, the doctor may suggest several handling measures that will be adapted to the condition of snoring sufferers, namely:

  • The use of CPAP engines (continuous positive airway pressure) by placing a pressurized mask connected to a small air pump over the nose when the patient sleeps. This tool will keep the respiratory tract open.
  • Use of a specially made device to fit the patient’s mouth to keep the jaw, tongue, and palate fixed. Installation of this tool will require regular visits to a dental specialist to ensure conditions continue to be monitored until improving. Side effects of this tool are increased saliva, dry mouth, and jaw pain.
  • The traditional surgical procedure is called uvulopalatofaringoplasti (UPPP). The procedure of tightening and removal of excess tissue from the throat to dilate air flow and reduce snoring. Risk of side effects of this procedure include infection, bleeding, pain and nasal blockage.
  • Laser or LUPPP surgery, which uses laser light to perform UPPP procedures in snoring patients. This procedure can be done many times to control snoring.
  • Somnoplasty or tissue ablation by using radio frequency to shrink tissue to the palate and reduce snoring.
  • The procedure of installing an artificial mouthpiece made of soft polyester into the tissue of the palate to make it more rigid and reduce snoring. Discuss with your doctor before undergoing this procedure because the level of safety is still under investigation.